Mechanical Testing of Materials
Mechanical testing is a term that covers a wide range of tests, which aim to determine a material’s mechanical properties, independent of geometry as well as those that determine the response of a structure to a given action.
Tensile Test: used to obtain the stress-strain curve for a material, and from there, properties such as Young modulus, yield (or proof) stress, tensile stress and % elongation to failure. A standard specimen is subjected to a gradually increasing load (force) until failure occurs. The resultant load-displacement behavior is used to determine a stress–strain curve, from which many mechanical properties can be measured.
There are many standardized tests to determine the various mechanical properties of materials. In general, such tests set out to obtain geometry-independent properties. In practice, this is not always feasible, since even in tensile tests, certain properties can be influenced by specimen size and/or geometry. Here is a list of a few more common tests
- Hardness Testing
- Vickers hardness test (HV)
- Brinell hardness test (HBW)
- Knoop hardness test (HK)
- Rockwell hardness test (HR)
- Impact Testing
- Izod test
- Charpy test